Senin, 02 April 2012

history of islam in spain

Diposkan oleh Blog Gue di 10.31
         
    Islamic Spain (711-1492)Islamic Spain is a multi-cultural mix of people from the three major monotheistic religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism.Although Christians and Jews living under the restrictions, but in a very long time these three groups work together, and to some extent, mutually benefit from each other's presence.This fact was brought civilization to Europe that is commensurate with the height of the Roman Empire and Renaissance Italy.
Map kekusaan Muslim Spain In 711 Muslim forces came to Spain and in seven years conquered the Iberian Peninsula.It then became one of the great Islamic civilization; reached its peak in the Umayyad Caliph of Cordoba in the 10th century.Muslim power declined after that and ended in 1492 when Granada conquered.The heart of Islamic rule is Spain Spanish or Andulusia.PeriodMuslim Spain is not only one period, but a series of periods with different powers.• an Independent Emirate (711-756)• Emirates is No Freedom (756-929)• Khalifah (929-1031)• Al-Murabbitun Era (1031-1130)• Setbacks (1130-1492)ConquestThe story is traditionally believed to be happening is that in the year 711, Christians are oppressed, the head of Julian, go to Musa ibn Nusair, the governor of North Africa, by asking for help against the tyrannical Visigoth ruler of Spain, Roderick.Moses replied by sending the young general Tariq ibn Ziyad with an army troop 7000. Gibraltar's name comes from Jabal At-Tariq which in Arabic means 'the Mount of Tariq' named after the place where Muslim troops landed.The story of the request for help is not generally accepted. There is no doubt that Tariq invaded Spain, but the reason for it may have more to do with the urge Muslims to enlarge their territory.Muslim army defeated the Visigoth army easily, and Roderick was killed in the fighting.After the first victory, the Muslims controlled most of Spain and Portugal with little difficulty, and even with little resistance. In 720 Spain was largely under the control of Muslims (or Moors, a name which is often called).Power of the ruling Islamist consists of different nationalities, and many of the troops who converted with uncertain motivation, thus forming a coherent Muslim countries it is not easy.AndalusiaIslam is the power center of Southern Spain or Andulusia. Andalusia's name comes from Al-Andalus term used by the Arabs, coming from those Vandals who have settled in this region.StabilityStability in Muslim Spain manifested in the establishment of the Umayyad Andalusia, which lasted from 756 until 1031.Who contributed to the Emir Abd al-Rahman, who founded the Emirate of Cordoba, and is able to unite the various Muslim groups who had conquered Spain to hang together.The Golden AgeThe period of Muslim rule in Spain is often described as the "golden age" of science in which libraries, universities, public baths were established and literature, poetry and architecture evolve. Both Muslims and non-Muslims has contributed greatly to the development of the culture there.A Golden Age of Religious Tolerance?Spanish Islam is sometimes portrayed as a "golden age" religious and ethnic tolerance and harmony between Muslims, Christians and Jews.Some historians believe that the idea of ​​a golden age is false and will lead modern readers to believe, erroneously, that Muslim Spain was tolerant to the same standards torleransi Britain of the 21st century.The real situation is more complicated. Historian Bernard Lewis writes that the status of non-Muslims in Muslim Spain was a sort of second class citizenship, but he went on to say:"Class two nationalities, although the second class, it is a nationality. Involves some rights, though not all, and certainly better than no rights at all ...""... A status which, although it is a form of inferiority to the dominant group, established by law, recognized by tradition, and confirmed by the approval of the general public, should not be looked down upon." (Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, 1984).Non-Muslims living in Islamic SpainJews and Christians retain some form of freedom under Muslim rule, they provide and adhere to certain rules. Although the rules will now be considered totally unacceptable, they are not much burdened by the standards of the time, and in many respects non-Muslims of Islamic Spain (at least before 1050) are treated better than you might think those colonies during this period of history.• They are not forced to live in ghettos or other special location• They are not slaves• They are not prevented to remain in their faith• They are not forced to change religion or death under Islamic rule• They are not forbidden to make a living in a certain way, they often take jobs shunned by Muslims;o include an unpleasant job is tanneries and slaughtero but also fun jobs such as banking and dealing in gold and silver• They can work as a civil servant in the Islamic rulers• The Jews and Christians are able to contribute to society and cultureAn alternative view of the Golden Age of Tolerance is that Jews and Christians in Islamic Spain is bound, forced to live in a state of 'Dhimmitude' (dzimmiy). (Dhimmi is a non-Muslim living in an Islamic country. They were not slaves, but did not have the same rights as a Muslim living in the same country).In the Islamic Spain, Jews and Christians are tolerated if they:
    
Recognize the superiority of Islam
    
Accept the rule of Islam
    
Pay the tax called the jizya to the Muslim rulers and sometimes paying higher taxes than other
    
Avoid infamy
    
Not trying to convert Muslims
    
Abide by the rules set by the authorities. These include:o restrictions on clothing and the need to wear special badgeso restrictions on the construction of synagogues and churcheso are not allowed to carry weaponso can not inherit from a Muslimo can not bequeath anything to a Muslimo can not have a Muslim slaveo dhimmi man may not marry a Muslim woman (but otherwise acceptable)o dhimmi could not testify in Islamic courtso dhimmi will receive lower compensation than Muslims the same injurySometimes there are restrictions on religious practice are too obvious. The sound of bells or singing too loudly restricted.Many Christians in Spain assimilated into Muslim culture. Some of them learn Arabic, adopt the same dress with a ruler (even a few Christian women started wearing the hijab) and some take Arab names. Christians who do this are known as Mozarabs.The authorities do not give non-Muslims equal status; non-Muslim communities are in the lower level.Society was sharply divided by ethnic and religious, with the Arab tribes at the top of the hierarchy, followed by the Berbers who were never recognized by the same, even though they are Muslim; lower in the scale is mullawadun who converted to Islam and, at the very bottom, the dhimmi Christians and Jews (Bat Ye'or, Islam and Dhimmitude, 2002).The Muslims did not explicitly hate or persecute non-Muslims. As Bernard Lewis puts it:in contrast to Christian anti-Semitism, Muslim behavior toward non-Muslims is not hate or fear or envy but only a kind of insult (Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, 1984).An example of this contempt is found in the 12th century:Massage should not be a Muslim a Jew or a Christian or clean their toilets. Jews and Christians are more suitable for such trades, because they are a vile merchant.Why tolerated non-Muslims in Muslim Spain?There are several reasons why the Muslim rulers tolerant of different religions:• Judaism and Christianity is a monotheistic religion, so the people they considered to worship the same Godo despite having some of the beliefs and practices are different, as not willing to accept Muhammad and the Quran• Christians outnumbered Muslimso mass conversion or mass execution impracticalo prohibit or control the trust so many people would be costly• Including non-Muslim rulers in the government providing administrative officero the faithful (because not tied to any one of various Muslim groups)o which can be easily disciplined or fired if necessary. (An official has a Christian as the head of his bodyguard)• The verses in the Quran says that Christians and Jews should be tolerated if they abide by certain rulesLater the Spanish oppression of Islamvladtepesblog.comvladtepesblog.comNot all Muslim rulers Spain tolerant. Al-Mansur pillage churches and imposing tight restrictions.The position of non-Muslims in Spain deteriorated substantially from the mid-11th century when the rulers of more stringent and Islam come under great pressure from the outside.Christians are not allowed to have houses higher than Muslims, Muslims should not be hired servant, and must give way to Muslims on the streets.Christians should not display symbols of their faith outside, not even carrying a Bible. There is persecution and execution.One famous incident was premeditated murder in Granada in 1066, and was followed by further violence and discrimination in which the kingdom of Islam itself is under pressure.With the decline of the Islamic empire, and more areas are taken over again by the Christian rulers, the Muslims in Christian areas find themselves facing the same pressures to which they previously had done to others.However, overall, a lot of religious minorities will become worse after Islam was replaced in Spain by the Christians.There are also cultural alliances, especially in architecture - 12 lions in the court of Al-Hambra is a Christian influence.Mosque in Cordoba, now converted into a cathedral is, somewhat ironically, known as La Mezquita or literally, the mosque.This mosque was built at the end of the 8th century by the prince Ummayyad Abd Al-Rahman bin Mu'awiyah.Under the reign of Abdul Rahman III (r. 912-961) of Islamic Spain reached its greatest power, every May, the campaign was launched to the Christian borders, it is also a cultural peak of Islamic civilization in Spain.CordobaIn the 10th century, Cordoba, the capital of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain, unparalleled in the East and West in terms of wealth and civilization. One author wrote about Cordoba:there are half a million inhabitants, 113 000 lived in the house. There are 700 mosques and 300 public baths spread throughout the city and sub city. The streets were paved and lighted ... There are bookstores and more than seventy libraries.Muslim scholars serve as the main link in bringing Greek philosophy, in which Muslims are the main guard, to Western Europe.There is a junction and an alliance between the rulers of Muslim and Christian rulers such as the legendary Spanish warrior, El Cid, who fought both against and with Muslims.Interaction of Muslim, Jewish and ChristianHow Muslims, Jews and Christians interact in practice? Whether this is a period of tolerance that invisible reinforced with respect the sacred texts? What ultimately led to the fall of Cordoba and Muslim Spain? And if we are guilty of having too adore this period as the golden age of live together?Three contributors discuss this question with Melvyn Bragg. They are: Tim Winter, who embraced Islam and lecturer in Islamic Studies at the Faculty of Divinity at Cambridge University; Martin Palmer, an Anglican lay preacher and theologian, author of The Sacred History of Britain; and Mehri Niknam, Executive Director of the Maimonides Foundation, a joint Muslim Jewish Interfaith Foundation in London.RuinThe collapse of Muslim rule in Spain was due to not only increase the aggression of Christian states, but also spawned a division among the Muslim rulers. Disaster is coming both from the center and the extremities.At the beginning of the 11th century, the only Islamic Caliphate had disintegrated into small kingdoms. The first major Islamic center that fell into the hands of Christian Toledo in 1085.The Muslims retaliated by troops from Africa under General Yusuf bin Tasyfin the Christians defeated decisively in 1086, and 1102 had retaken most of Andalusia. Generally able to reunite much of Muslim Spain.RevivalThat did not last long. Joseph died in 1106, and, one historian says, the "rulers of Muslim countries began to slaughter each other with each other again".Internal rebellion in 1144 and 1145 and then destroy the unity of Islam, and even occasionally succeed militarily, it ended the dominance of Islamic Spain for good.The Muslims eventually lost all his power in Spain in 1492. 1502 by Christian rulers issued an order requiring all Muslims to Christianity, and when it does not work, they impose restrictions to the brutal Muslim Spain that remains.



          ISLAM my religion - Muslims occupied Spain at the time of Caliph Al-Walid (705-715 AD), one of the Umayyad caliphate based in Damascus, where the Muslims had previously been controlled North Africa. In the process of the Spanish conquest, there are three heroes of Islam that can be said that the most meritorious Tharif ibn Malik, Tariq ibn Ziyad and Musa ibn Nushair.Muslims occupied Spain at the time of Caliph Al-Walid (705-715 AD), one of the Bani Umayyad caliphate based in Damascus. Before the Spanish conquest, the Muslims had taken control of North Africa and made it a province of Bani Umayyad dynasty, full mastery over North Africa took place at the time of Caliph Abdul Malik (685-705 AD). Caliph Abd al-Malik al-Numan ibn Hasan lift-Ghassani became governor of the area.At the time of Caliph al-Walid, Hasan ibn Nu'man ibn Musa has been replaced by Nushair. In an age of al-Walid, Moses ibn Nushair expand their territories by occupying Algeria and Morocco. In addition, he also perfected the conquest of the regions of the former power of the Berbers in the mountains, so they declare loyalty and promised not to create chaos-chaos as they once did before.The conquest of the North African region of the first beat to become one of the provinces of Bani Umayyad Caliphate take as long as 53 years, starting in 30 H (the reign of Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan) until the year 83 AH (the al-Walid). Before Islam was defeated and then occupied, in this region there are pockets of the Roman empire's power base, the Gothic kingdom. The kingdom is often incite people to riot and opposed to Islamic rule.Once this area really can be mastered, the Muslims began to focus his attention on conquering Spain. Thus, North Africa become a springboard for the conquest of the Muslims in Spain. In the process there are three heroes of the Spanish conquest of Islam that can be said to be the most meritorious led forces units there.They are Tharif ibn Malik, Tariq ibn Ziyad and Musa ibn Nushair. Tharif can be called a pioneer and investigator. He crossed the strait that lies between Morocco and the European continent with the forces of war, five hundred of them were horsemen, they boarded four ships provided by Julian. In the raid Tharif not have the means of resistance.He won and returned to North Africa to bring the spoils that are not few in number.Encouraged by the success Tharif and chaos that occurs in the body of the ruling Visigothic kingdom in Spain at the time, as well as a great encouragement to gain the spoils of war, Musa ibn Nushair in the year 711 AD sent troops to Spain as many as 7000 people under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziyad . Tariq ibn Ziyad is more widely known as the conqueror of Spain when they were larger and more tangible results. His force consisted of mostly ethnic Berbers supported by Musa ibn Nushair and some Arabs who sent the Caliph al-Walid. The troops then crossed the Channel in Tariq ibn Ziyad led.A mountain of Tariq and his men first landed and set up his army, known by the name of Gibraltar (Jabal Tariq). With this area under their control, then opened the door widely to enter Spain. In the battle at a place called Bakkah, can be defeated King Roderick. From there, Tariq and his army continued to conquer major cities such as Cordova, Granada and Toledo (capital of Gothic empire at that time). Before Tariq conquered the city of Toledo, he asked for more troops to Musa ibn Nushair in North Africa.Moses to send additional troops as much as 5000 personnel, so the total number of troops Tariq 12,000 people. This amount is not comparable to the Gothic army much larger, 100,000. The first victory achieved by Tariq ibn Ziyad make way for the conquest of the region more broadly. To that end, Musa ibn Nushair feel the need to engage in a battle arena with the intention of helping the struggle Tariq. With a large army, he set off across the strait, and one by one city in its path can be conquered.After Moses conquered Sidonia, Karmona, Seville, and Merida, and beat the Gothic monarch, Theodomir in Orihuela, she was joined by Tariq at Toledo. Furthermore, they managed to control all important cities in Spain, including its northern part, from Saragossa to Navarre. The next wave of territorial expansion came during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz year 99 H/717 AD This time the target is intended to control the area around the mountain Pyrenia and Southern France. Entrusted to the chief of Al-Samah, but his efforts failed and he was himself killed in the year 102 H.Furthermore, the chief handed over to Abdullah ibn Abd al-Ghafiqi. With his troops, he attacked the city Bordesu, Poiter, and from here he tried to attack the city of Tours. However, between the towns of Tours Poiter and he was arrested by Charles Martel, that the invasion of France failed, and he led the army retreated back to Spain. After that, there are still attacks, such as the Avirignon year 734 AD, to Lyon in 743 AD, and contained islands of Majorca in the Mediterranean Sea, Corsia, Sardinia, Creta, Rhodes, Cyprus and parts of Sicily also fall into Islam at the hands of Bani Umayyad era.The second wave of the invasion of the largest movement of the Muslims who started at the beginning of the 8th century AD, has wide reach throughout Spanish and Middle French far-reaching and important parts of Italy. Victories achieved Muslims seem so easy. It can not be separated from the external and internal factors are favorable. What is meant by an external factor is a condition contained in his own country Spain. At the time of the conquest of Spain by the Muslims, the social, political, and economic development of this country are in pathetic state.Politically, the territory of Spain was torn apart and divided into several small countries. Along with the Gothic ruler being intolerant of religious sects that embraced by the authorities, namely the flow of Monophysites, especially toward other religions, Judaism. Judaism which form the bulk of the population of Spain was forced to be baptized in the Christian religion. Are not willing to be tortured, and brutally murdered. The people were divided into the class system, so the situation covered by poverty, oppression, and lack of equal rights.In a situation like that, the liberator of the oppressed awaiting the arrival of interpreters, and interpreters pembebasnya they found the people of Islam. With regard to the Amer Ali, as quoted by Imamuddin said, when Africa (East and West) to enjoy the convenience in terms of material, unity, justice, and prosperity, its neighbor on the peninsula of Spain are in a sad state under the rule of iron fist ruler Visighotic. On the other hand, the kingdom is in turmoil, which inflicts the suffering of the people. As a result of cruel treatment, the colonies became an important Jewish places of resistance and rebellion.The divisions in this country helped the success of the Spanish intervention in the year 711 AD Islam The split was very much coraknya, and existed long before the Gothic kingdom stand. Political divisions exacerbated the economic situation. When Islam arrived in Spain, the local economy in a state of paralysis. In fact, when Spain was under Roman rule, thanks to the fertility of the soil, agriculture developed rapidly. Similarly, mining, industry and commerce as it is supported by good transportation facilities. However, after the Spanish under the authority of the royal Goth, crippled the economy and social welfare to decline.Hektaran left stranded with no uncultivated land, some of the factories closed, and between one region and other areas hardest-hit due to the roads do not receive treatment. The poor state of social, economic, and religious is primarily due to the chaotic political situation. The worst conditions occurred during the reign of King Roderick, the last King of the Goths defeated Islam. Early destruction of the kingdom when King Roderick Ghoth is moving its capital from Seville to Toledo, while Witiza, who was a ruler of the territory of Toledo, was dismissed just like that. This state and incurred the wrath of Oppas Achila, brother and son Witiza.Both were later gathered up the strength to overthrow Roderick. They went to North Africa and joined the Muslims. Meanwhile there is also conflict between the Queen of Julian Roderick, a former ruler of Septah. Julian also joined the Muslims in North Africa and support the efforts of Muslims to master Spanish, Julian even lend four ships used by Tharif, Tariq and Musa. This benefit is that the Muslim army consisting of soldiers Roderick oppressed slaves no longer have the spirit of war In addition, Jews who had been depressed also have fellowship and providing assistance to fight the Muslims.As is the internal factor is a condition contained in the ruling body, tokon figures of warriors and soldiers involved in the Islamic conquest of Spain in particular.The leaders are powerful figures, army compact, united, and confident. They were competent, courageous, and steadfast in the face of every issue. Equally important are the teachings of Islam that indicated the soldiers of Islam, namely tolerance, fraternity and mutual help. The attitude of religious tolerance and brotherhood contained in the person of the Muslims that led to the Spanish population welcomed the presence of Islam there. (AP)
 

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